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Catégorie: Box of knowledge

Guide to Mounting

During metallographic sample preparation, the cut samples are usually mounted in a resin into cylindrical shapes before polishing. While mounting may seem as an auxiliary step in sample preparation, it has profound implications on the polishing process, hence determining the quality of overall sample preparation process. This also implies an importance on the right choice of mounting process and consumable which depends on the nature of material to be inspected and the objective of analysis. While a mounting resin might suitably work for general microstructure purposes, it might not be suitable...

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Metallography of Copper Alloys

Copper has been historically used by humans since tens of thousands of years ago and hence has a historical significance is the domain of metallurgy. Being a metal, whose alloys have been explored and tuned for millennia, copper alloys are known for their thermal and electrical conductivity, and ductility. For example, bronze is an alloy of copper that has been the most explored metal in the aptly named Bronze Age. Additionally, their corrosion resistance, strength, and their abundance make them valuable for many industries. Metallographyof Copper Alloys Contents 1/ Metallography 2/...

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Metallography of Fiber reinforced composites

Composites bring the advantages of two different material domains together. A material forms the matrix and another material forms the reinforcing phase, combinedly resulting in a composite. Depending on the matrix material, composites can be classified as Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs), Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs), and Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). The reinforcing phases are generally harder and stronger than the matrix. Also, the reinforcing phases can be continuous – such as laminates or fiber, or discontinuous – such as whiskers or particles. This page focusses on metallography...

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Preparing flat metallographic samples

Metallography of some samples (with phases of varying hardness, with coatings, with intricate contours etc) demands flat polished surfaces with no form of relief or edge rounding. However, the process to grind and polish samples flat may not be straightforward. Many times, routes to having flat samples involve increasing the complexity and size of the machine. LAM PLAN having profound expertise in lapping processes, which involve rendering samples flat, proposes a simple approach to polishing metallographic samples flat. The proposed approach works for all users working on smaller samples (30...

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Right sectioning technology for your metallographic sample preparation

Sectioning, or cutting, involves extracting a piece of a sample with the cross-section of interest to be polished and imaged under a microscope. For metallography, dedicated machines are available in the market to perform such cutting operations under conditions that would mitigate the deformation the material is subjected to. Choosing the right sectioning technology for your metallographic sample preparation Contents Cutting for metallography Cutting Techniques Conclusion Download PDF Cutting for metallography While there are many coarse cutting methods such as hack-sawing,...

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Metallography for Additive Manufacturing

Over the last few years, Additive manufacturing(AM) has been sculpting the manufacturing domain in revolutionary ways. Attracted by the various advantages including the countless design possibilities unlocked by AM, more and more industries are adopting AM. The early adopters of the rapidly evolving AM technologies are the aerospace industries and biomedical industries. Today, one could already fly in planes with several additively manufactured components or print themselves an implant specifically designed for their body. One of the main focus points of AM is that, it is a smaller part of...

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Metallography of Aluminium

Aluminium alloys offer light-weight solutions for structural applications making them widely used in the Aerospace and Automotive industry. Their high specific strength positions them advantageously in the material selection charts. Another valuable quality they possess is their recyclability. For many aircraft components, this makes them strong competitors against polymer matrix composites. However, their principal disadvantage is that they lose their strength drastically at higher temperatures. Hundreds of aluminium alloys exist in the market and their microstructures have been thoroughly...

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Metallography of Steels

Steels are widely used in a variety of engineering applications ranging from civil to aerospace and automotive industries. The simplicity to manufacture, the cost and the well-studied properties of steel alloys make them ubiquitous in engineering. Most alloyed steels are manufactured with a complex chemistry depending on the desired properties. However, this page will equip you with the knowledge necessary to perform metallography hassle-free and efficiently. Metallography of Steels Contents 1/ Metallography for quality control 2/ Sample preparation methods 3/ Troubleshooting ...

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Metallography of Titanium

Titanium alloys are known for their high specific tensile strength and toughness, and corrosion resistance among non-ferrous alloys. Unlike aluminum alloys, titanium alloys are resistant to This makes them a frequently used structural alloy for components such as turbine blades in aircraft industries. In addition to their specific strength, their bio-compatibility makes them widely used in orthopedic implants. Be it the aircraft industry or biomedical industry, quality control is extremely critical. Metallography of Titanium Contents 1/ Metallography 2/ Sample preparation methods 3/...

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